Background: The peri-operative mortality of the arterial switch operation in neonates with transposition of the great arteries is considerably low; however, long-term outcomes of translocated coronary arteries still remain one of the most crucial issues. Methods and results A total of 110 neonates with transposition of the great arteries after arterial switch operation were evaluated; three (2.7%) late deaths occurred. The remaining 107 patients except for one underwent follow-up angiography. Angiography showed coronary artery stenosis in nine (8.4%), with right coronary artery lesions in two and left main trunk lesions in seven. In two patients, right coronary artery stenosis regressed during follow-up. In left main trunk lesions, the severity of stenosis improved in four, did not change in one, and progressed to total occlusion in two patients. In children with coronary artery stenosis, myocardial scintigraphy showed perfusion defects in five out of six (83%) with left main trunk with ⩾75% stenosis and in four out of four with left main trunk stenosis ⩾90%. In contrast, patients whose coronary artery stenosis disappeared during follow-up had no perfusion defects on scintigraphy.
Conclusions: Regression of ostial stenosis of the transplanted coronary artery on angiogram was observed. The stenosis regressed over time in six patients; two coronary arteries with 99% stenosis and delayed angiographic enhancement of the distal coronary artery resulted in total occlusion within 1 year after the arterial switch operation. Combination of angiography and myocardial scintigraphy could be useful to differentiate deceptive stenosis from progressive stenosis.
Keywords: Transposition of the great arteries; arterial switch operation; coronary artery stenosis; myocardial scintigraphy.