Essential Oil from Clove Bud (Eugenia aromatica Kuntze) Inhibit Key Enzymes Relevant to the Management of Type-2 Diabetes and Some Pro-oxidant Induced Lipid Peroxidation in Rats Pancreas in vitro

J Oleo Sci. 2015;64(7):775-82. doi: 10.5650/jos.ess14274. Epub 2015 May 21.


The inhibition of enzymes involved in the breakdown of carbohydrates is considered a therapeutic approach to the management of type-2 diabetes. This study sought to investigate the effects of essential oil from clove bud on α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities. Essential oil from clove bud was extracted by hydrodistillation, dried with anhydrous Na2SO4 and characterized using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The effects of the essential oil on α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities were investigated. The antioxidant properties of the oil and the inhibition of Fe(2+) and sodium nitroprusside-induced malondialdehyde (MDA) production in rats pancreas homogenate were also carried out. The essential oil inhibited α-amylase (EC50=88.9 μl/L) and α-glucosidase (EC50=71.94 μl/L) activities in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the essential oil inhibited Fe(2+) and SNP-induced MDA production and exhibited antioxidant activities through their NO*, OH*, scavenging and Fe(2+)- chelating abilities. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the essential oil were 12.95 mg/g and 6.62 mg/g respectively. GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of α-pinene, β-pinene, neral, geranial, gamma terpinene, cis-ocimene, allo ocimene, 1,8-cineole, linalool, borneol, myrcene and pinene-2-ol in significant amounts. Furthermore, the essential oils exhibited antioxidant activities as typified by hydroxyl (OH) and nitric oxide (NO)] radicals scavenging and Fe(2+)-chelating abilities. The inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities, inhibition of pro-oxidant induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas and antioxidant activities could be possible mechanisms for the use of the essential oil in the management and prevention of oxidative stress induced type-2 diabetes.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antioxidants*
  • Clove Oil / chemistry
  • Clove Oil / isolation & purification
  • Clove Oil / pharmacology*
  • Depression, Chemical
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / enzymology*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / etiology*
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Ferrous Compounds / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Free Radical Scavengers
  • In Vitro Techniques
  • Iron Chelating Agents
  • Lipid Peroxidation / drug effects*
  • Malondialdehyde / metabolism
  • Nitroprusside
  • Oils, Volatile / chemistry
  • Oils, Volatile / isolation & purification
  • Oils, Volatile / pharmacology*
  • Oxidative Stress
  • Pancreas / metabolism*
  • Rats
  • Reactive Oxygen Species
  • Syzygium / chemistry*
  • alpha-Amylases / metabolism*
  • alpha-Glucosidases / metabolism*


  • Antioxidants
  • Clove Oil
  • Ferrous Compounds
  • Free Radical Scavengers
  • Iron Chelating Agents
  • Oils, Volatile
  • Reactive Oxygen Species
  • Nitroprusside
  • Malondialdehyde
  • alpha-Amylases
  • alpha-Glucosidases