Association between salivary amylase (AMY1) gene copy numbers and insulin resistance in asymptomatic Korean men

Diabet Med. 2015 Dec;32(12):1588-95. doi: 10.1111/dme.12808. Epub 2015 Jun 4.


Aims: Salivary amylase gene (AMY1) copy number variations (CNVs) correlate directly with salivary amylase activity and serum amylase levels. Previously, individuals with high AMY1 CNVs exhibited low postprandial glucose levels and postprandial early insulin surge, suggesting that high AMY1 gene copy numbers may play a role in lowering the risk of insulin resistance.

Methods: We verified the relationship between AMY1 CNVs and homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in a cohort of 1257 Korean men aged 20-65 years who visited two medical centres for regular health check-ups, and in subgroups of current smokers and regular alcohol drinkers. Individuals with fasting plasma glucose levels > 10.0 mmol/l, HbA1c ≥ 64 mmol/mol (8.0%) or who used oral hypoglycaemic agents or insulin were excluded.

Results: AMY1 CNVs correlated negatively with HOMA-IR even after adjusting for covariates (e.g. BMI, systolic blood pressure, triacylglycerol, alcohol consumption, smoking and physical activity). When the participants were divided according to current smoking and alcohol consumption habits, negative correlations between AMY1 CNVs and HOMA-IR were more evident among non-smokers and regular drinkers and were non-significant among smokers and non-regular drinkers.

Conclusions: Low AMY1 CNVs correlated with high insulin resistance in asymptomatic Korean men, and such a relationship presented differently according to the status of smoking and alcohol consumption.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Alcohol Drinking / adverse effects
  • Cohort Studies
  • DNA Copy Number Variations*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / enzymology
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / epidemiology
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / etiology
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / genetics*
  • Gene Dosage
  • Genetic Association Studies
  • Genetic Predisposition to Disease*
  • Humans
  • Insulin Resistance*
  • Male
  • Metabolic Syndrome / enzymology
  • Metabolic Syndrome / epidemiology
  • Metabolic Syndrome / etiology
  • Metabolic Syndrome / genetics*
  • Middle Aged
  • Models, Genetic*
  • Republic of Korea / epidemiology
  • Risk Factors
  • Salivary alpha-Amylases / genetics*
  • Salivary alpha-Amylases / metabolism
  • Smoking / adverse effects
  • Young Adult


  • AMY1A protein, human
  • Salivary alpha-Amylases