Objective: To investigate the glycemic index ( GI) of wild rice, and observe the effects of wild rice on the insulin resistance ( IR) rats induced by high fat diet.
Methods: With 50g glucose as control, measured healthy adults ( n = 8 ) blood glucose levels after eating 67 g wild rice within 2 h, and using Jenkins and Wolever formula to calculate the GI. 50 male SD rats were randomly divided into negative control group, IR model group, high-dose of wild rice group, low-dose of wild rice group and white rice-flour group, continuous feeding eight weeks. Fasting blood glucose (FPG), fasting insulin (INS), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbAlc) and glucagon (GC) were measured, and insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) was calculated.
Results: The GI of wild rice was 53. 72 . Compared. with the negative control group, the rats of IR model group and white rice-flour group had higher body weight, FPG, INS, GC levels and HOMA-IR (P <0. 05). Compared with the white rice-flour and IR model group , FPG, INS, GC levels and HOMA-IR in rats fed high-dose of wild rice and low-dose of wild rice diet were significantly decreased (P <0. 05). The rats fed with low-dose of wild rice diet had slightly increased FPG, INS, GC levels and HOMA-IR, but the difference was not statistically significant.
Conclusion: Wild rice is a low glycemic index food, while wild rice can improve the resistance in rats induced by high fat diet, and replace 50% of the refined rice and flour with wild rice can improve insulin resistance in rats.