Hijacked in cancer: the KMT2 (MLL) family of methyltransferases

Nat Rev Cancer. 2015 Jun;15(6):334-46. doi: 10.1038/nrc3929.

Abstract

Histone-lysine N-methyltransferase 2 (KMT2) family proteins methylate lysine 4 on the histone H3 tail at important regulatory regions in the genome and thereby impart crucial functions through modulating chromatin structures and DNA accessibility. Although the human KMT2 family was initially named the mixed-lineage leukaemia (MLL) family, owing to the role of the first-found member KMT2A in this disease, recent exome-sequencing studies revealed KMT2 genes to be among the most frequently mutated genes in many types of human cancers. Efforts to integrate the molecular mechanisms of KMT2 with its roles in tumorigenesis have led to the development of first-generation inhibitors of KMT2 function, which could become novel cancer therapies.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Histone-Lysine N-Methyltransferase / chemistry*
  • Histone-Lysine N-Methyltransferase / genetics
  • Histone-Lysine N-Methyltransferase / metabolism*
  • Humans
  • Molecular Targeted Therapy
  • Mutation
  • Myeloid-Lymphoid Leukemia Protein / chemistry
  • Myeloid-Lymphoid Leukemia Protein / genetics
  • Myeloid-Lymphoid Leukemia Protein / metabolism
  • Neoplasms / enzymology*
  • Neoplasms / genetics*
  • Neoplasms / metabolism
  • Protein Subunits

Substances

  • KMT2A protein, human
  • Protein Subunits
  • Myeloid-Lymphoid Leukemia Protein
  • Histone-Lysine N-Methyltransferase