Recommendations on pre-hospital & early hospital management of acute heart failure: a consensus paper from the Heart Failure Association of the European Society of Cardiology, the European Society of Emergency Medicine and the Society of Academic Emergency Medicine

Eur J Heart Fail. 2015 Jun;17(6):544-58. doi: 10.1002/ejhf.289. Epub 2015 May 21.


Acute heart failure is a fatal syndrome. Emergency physicians, cardiologists, intensivists, nurses and other health care providers have to cooperate to provide optimal benefit. However, many treatment decisions are opinion-based and few are evidenced-based. This consensus paper provides guidance to practicing physicians and nurses to manage acute heart failure in the pre-hospital and hospital setting. Criteria of hospitalization and of discharge are described. Gaps in knowledge and perspectives in the management of acute heart failure are also detailed. This consensus paper on acute heart failure might help enable contiguous practice.

Keywords: Acute heart failure; cardiogenic shock; diuretics; vasodilators.

Publication types

  • Practice Guideline
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Acute Disease
  • Cardiac Care Facilities
  • Cardiology / organization & administration
  • Diuretics / administration & dosage
  • Emergency Medical Services
  • Emergency Medicine / organization & administration
  • Europe
  • Heart Failure / therapy*
  • Humans
  • Oxygen Inhalation Therapy
  • Practice Guidelines as Topic / standards*
  • Shock, Cardiogenic
  • Societies, Medical
  • Vasodilator Agents / administration & dosage


  • Diuretics
  • Vasodilator Agents