Acetic acid enhances endurance capacity of exercise-trained mice by increasing skeletal muscle oxidative properties

Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2015;79(9):1535-41. doi: 10.1080/09168451.2015.1034652. Epub 2015 May 22.


Acetic acid has been shown to promote glycogen replenishment in skeletal muscle during exercise training. In this study, we investigated the effects of acetic acid on endurance capacity and muscle oxidative metabolism in the exercise training using in vivo mice model. In exercised mice, acetic acid induced a significant increase in endurance capacity accompanying a reduction in visceral adipose depots. Serum levels of non-esterified fatty acid and urea nitrogen were significantly lower in acetic acid-fed mice in the exercised mice. Importantly, in the mice, acetic acid significantly increased the muscle expression of key enzymes involved in fatty acid oxidation and glycolytic-to-oxidative fiber-type transformation. Taken together, these findings suggest that acetic acid improves endurance exercise capacity by promoting muscle oxidative properties, in part through the AMPK-mediated fatty acid oxidation and provide an important basis for the application of acetic acid as a major component of novel ergogenic aids.

Keywords: acetic acid; exercise training; mouse; muscle protein expression; oxidative properties.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Acetic Acid / administration & dosage*
  • Adipose Tissue / metabolism
  • Animals
  • Glycogen / metabolism
  • Lipid Metabolism / drug effects
  • Mice
  • Muscle, Skeletal / drug effects
  • Muscle, Skeletal / metabolism*
  • Oxidation-Reduction
  • Physical Conditioning, Animal
  • Physical Endurance / drug effects*


  • Glycogen
  • Acetic Acid