Objectives: Tracheobronchial stenosis (TBS) is noted in 12-23% of patients with granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), and includes subglottic stenosis and bronchial stenosis. We aimed to analyse the endoscopic management of TBS in GPA and to identify factors associated with the efficacy of endoscopic interventions.
Methods: We conducted a French nationwide retrospective study that included 47 patients with GPA-related TBS.
Results: Compared with patients without TBS, those with TBS were younger, more frequently female and had less frequent kidney, ocular and gastrointestinal involvement and mononeuritis multiplex. Endoscopic procedures included 137 tracheal and 50 bronchial interventions, mainly endoscopic dilatation, local steroid injection and conservative laser surgery, and less frequently stenting. After the first endoscopic procedure, the cumulative incidence of endoscopic treatment failure was 49% at 1 year, 70% at 2 years and 80% at 5 years. Factors significantly associated with a higher cumulative incidence of treatment failure were a shorter time from GPA diagnosis to endoscopic procedure [hazard ratio (HR) 1.08 (95% CI 1.01, 1.14); P = 0.01] and a bronchial stenosis [HR 1.96 (95% CI 1.28, 3.00); P = 0.002]. A prednisone dose ≥30 mg/day at the time of the procedure was associated with a lower cumulative incidence of treatment failure [HR 0.53 (95% CI 0.31, 0.89); P = 0.02].
Conclusion: TBS represents severe and refractory manifestations with a high rate of restenosis. High-dose systemic CSs at the time of the procedure and increased time from GPA diagnosis to bronchoscopic intervention are associated with a better event-free survival. In contrast, bronchial stenoses are associated with a higher rate of restenosis than subglottic stenosis.
Keywords: bronchial stenosis; dilatation; granulomatosis with polyangiitis; prosthesis; subglottic stenosis; tracheobronchial involvement.
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