Hepatic glycogen storage disorders: what have we learned in recent years?

Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2015 Jul;18(4):415-21. doi: 10.1097/MCO.0000000000000181.

Abstract

Purpose of review: Glycogen storage disorders (GSDs) are inborn errors of metabolism with abnormal storage or utilization of glycogen. The present review focuses on recent advances in hepatic GSD types I, III and VI/IX, with emphasis on clinical aspects and treatment.

Recent findings: Evidence accumulates that poor metabolic control is a risk factor for the development of long-term complications, such as liver adenomas, low bone density/osteoporosis, and kidney disease in GSD I. However, mechanisms leading to these complications remain poorly understood and are being investigated. Molecular causes underlying neutropenia and neutrophil dysfunction in GSD I have been elucidated. Case series provide new insights into the natural course and outcome of GSD types VI and IX. For GSD III, a high protein/fat diet has been reported to improve (cardio)myopathy, but the beneficial effect of this dietary concept on muscle and liver disease manifestations needs to be further established in prospective studies.

Summary: Although further knowledge has been gained regarding pathophysiology, disease course, treatment, and complications of hepatic GSDs, more controlled prospective studies are needed to assess effects of different dietary and medical treatment options on long-term outcome and quality of life.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cardiomyopathies / complications
  • Cardiomyopathies / diet therapy
  • Cardiomyopathies / physiopathology
  • Diet, Carbohydrate-Restricted
  • Diet, High-Fat
  • Dietary Carbohydrates / administration & dosage
  • Dietary Fats / administration & dosage
  • Dietary Proteins / administration & dosage
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Glycogen / metabolism
  • Glycogen Storage Disease Type I / complications
  • Glycogen Storage Disease Type I / diagnosis
  • Glycogen Storage Disease Type I / diet therapy
  • Glycogen Storage Disease Type I / physiopathology*
  • Glycogen Storage Disease Type III / complications
  • Glycogen Storage Disease Type III / diagnosis
  • Glycogen Storage Disease Type III / diet therapy
  • Glycogen Storage Disease Type III / physiopathology*
  • Glycogen Storage Disease Type VI / complications
  • Glycogen Storage Disease Type VI / diagnosis
  • Glycogen Storage Disease Type VI / diet therapy
  • Glycogen Storage Disease Type VI / physiopathology*
  • Humans
  • Liver / physiopathology*
  • Liver Cirrhosis / complications
  • Liver Cirrhosis / diet therapy
  • Liver Cirrhosis / physiopathology

Substances

  • Dietary Carbohydrates
  • Dietary Fats
  • Dietary Proteins
  • Glycogen