Mastocytosis (M) is a clonal myeloid-disabling disorder for which no curative therapy is currently available. Cladribine (2-chlorodeoxyadenosine [2-CdA]) is a synthetic purine analog cytoreductive treatment, for which efficacy is mostly reported in advanced M. Here we report, with a long-term follow-up period (>10 years) efficacy and safety in 68 adult patients with M (36 [53%] had indolent M and 32 [47%] had advanced M) treated by 2-CdA (0.14 mg/kg in infusion or subcutaneously, days 1-5; repeated at 4-12 weeks until 1 to 9 courses). Median 2-CdA courses number was 3.7 (1-9). The overall response rate was 72% (complete remission [R]/major/partial R: 0%/47%/25%) and according to indolent/advanced M was 92% (major/partial R: 56%/36%) and 50% (major/partial R: 37.5%/12.5%), respectively. Clinical improvement was observed for 10 of 11 mediator release and 6 of 7 mast cell infiltration-related symptoms including urticaria pigmentosa and organomegaly (P < .02). Serum tryptase levels decreased (P = .01). Median durations of response were 3.71 (0.1-8) and 2.47 (0.5-8.6) years for indolent and aggressive M, respectively. The most frequent grade 3/4 toxicities were lymphopenia (82%), neutropenia (47%), and opportunistic infections (13%). 2-CdA appears to provide a significant efficacy with some toxicity in various M subtypes, mostly in indolent M, refractory to multiple symptomatic therapies.
© 2015 by The American Society of Hematology.