Correlation of cadmium and aluminum in blood samples of kidney disorder patients with drinking water and tobacco smoking: related health risk

Environ Geochem Health. 2016 Feb;38(1):265-74. doi: 10.1007/s10653-015-9715-y. Epub 2015 May 24.


The combined exposure to aluminum (Al) and cadmium (Cd) causes more pronounced adverse health effects on humans. The kidneys are the main organs affected by internal exposure to Cd and Al via food and non-food items. The objective of present study was to measure the Al and Cd concentrations in cigarettes tobacco (branded and non-branded) and drinking water (domestic treated, ground and lake water) samples in southern part of Pakistan, to assess the risk due to ingestion of water and inhalation of cigarettes smoke containing high concentrations of both elements. The study population (kidney disorder and healthy) divided into two group based on consuming lake and ground water, while smoking non-branded cigarette as exposed, while drinking domestic treated water and smoking branded cigarette as non-exposed. Electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry was used to determined Cd and Al concentrations in tobacco, drinking water and blood samples. The resulted data indicated that the levels of Al and Cd in lake and underground water were higher than the permissible limit in drinking water recommended by the World Health Organization. The biochemical parameters of exposed and referent patients, especially urinary N-acetyl-h-glucosaminidase, were used as a biomarkers of kidney disorder. Exposed kidney disorder patients have higher levels of Cd and Al than the exposed referents subjects, while difference was significant when compared to resulted data of non-exposed patients and referents (p = 0.01-0.001). The pearson correlation showed positive correlation between both toxic element concentrations in water, cigarettes versus blood samples of exposed subjects (r = 0.20-0.67 and 0.71-0.82), while lower values were observed for non-exposed subjects (r = 0.123-0.423 and 0.331-0.425), respectively.

Keywords: Aluminum; Blood; Cadmium; Drinking water; Kidney disorders; Tobacco smoking.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aluminum / blood*
  • Cadmium / blood*
  • Drinking Water / chemistry*
  • Environmental Exposure*
  • Environmental Monitoring
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Kidney Diseases / blood
  • Kidney Diseases / chemically induced
  • Kidney Diseases / epidemiology*
  • Logistic Models
  • Middle Aged
  • Odds Ratio
  • Pakistan / epidemiology
  • Prevalence
  • Risk
  • Smoking*


  • Drinking Water
  • Cadmium
  • Aluminum