Background: Although Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) is a known mediator of bone regeneration and vascular calcification, to date no study has investigated the relationship between BMP-2 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and its possible role in coronary artery disease (CAD). The purpose of this study is to evaluate the relationship of BMP-2 with atherosclerosis and calcification in patients with T2DM.
Methods: 124 subjects were enrolled in this study: 29 patients with T2DM and CAD; 26 patients with T2DM and without CAD; 36 patients with CAD and without T2DMand 34 without T2DM or CAD (control group). Severity of coronary lesions was assessed using coronary angiography and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS). Plasma BMP-2 levels were quantified using a commercially available ELISA kit.
Results: Compared to the control group, the mean plasma BMP-2 level was significantly higher in T2DM patients with or without CAD (20.1 ± 1.7 or 19.3 ± 1.5 pg/ml, vs 17.2 ± 3.3 pg/ml, P < 0.001). In a multivariable linear regression analysis, both T2DM and CAD were significantly and positively associated with BMP-2 (Estimate, 0.249; standard error (SE), 0.063; p <0.0001; Estimate, 0.400; SE, 0.06; p < 0.0001). Plasma BMP-2 was also strongly correlated with glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) (Spearman ρ = -0.31; p = 0.0005). SYNTAX score was also significantly associated with BMP-2 (Spearman ρ = 0.46; p = 0.0002). Using the results from IVUS, plasma BMP-2 levels were shown to positively correlate with plaque burden (Spearman ρ = 0.38, P = 0.002) and plaque calcification (Spearman ρ =0.44, P = 0.0003) and to negatively correlate with lumen volume (Spearman ρ =0.31, P = 0.01).
Conclusions: Our study demonstrates that patients with T2DM had higher circulating levels of BMP-2 than normal controls. Plasma BMP-2 levels correlated positively with plaque burden and calcification in patients with T2DM.