Aim: To propose a formalized consensus agreement regarding the prescription of azithromycin in cystic fibrosis (CF).
Material and methods: Application of the Delphi method in 5 thematic fields: indications, contra-indications, dosage, precautions for use and treatment follow-up.
Results: Thirty identified French CF centers participated in the process on 49 (61%), which comprised 3 rounds. Experts validated azithromycin as a long-term anti-inflammatory agent in children aged over 6 years, presenting with the classical form of CF, irrespective of the bacteriological status of the patient (except for non-tuberculous mycobacteria). Azithromycin administration should not be routine in the milder forms of the disease, and avoided in the presence of severe hepatic or renal involvement. In children whose weight is below 40 kg, a strong consensus recommended a single daily oral dose, administered three times weekly. However, in adults, the level of agreement was weaker. Minimal duration of treatment is 6 months, after which the drug should be discontinued if no observable effect is noted on clinical parameters, exacerbation rate and/or FEV1. Clinical monitoring of treatment tolerance is recommended (nausea, diarrhea, skin rash, tinnitus, deafness, arthropathy), without increasing the frequency of surveillance of sputum bacteria. However, it is essential to monitor sputum for fungi (expectoration, Aspergillus, broncho-pulmonary allergic aspergillosis).
Conclusion: This consensus statement defines an area for the prescription of azithromycin in CF, with the aim of better harmonization of its use.
Keywords: Azithromycin; Azithromycine; Consensus; Cystic fibrosis; Delphi; Inflammation; Mucoviscidose.
Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.