Treatment with citicoline eye drops enhances retinal function and neural conduction along the visual pathways in open angle glaucoma

Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2015 Aug;253(8):1327-40. doi: 10.1007/s00417-015-3044-9. Epub 2015 May 26.


Purpose: To evaluate the retinal function and the neural conduction along the visual pathways after treatment with citicoline eye drops in patients with open angle glaucoma (OAG).

Methods: Fifty-six OAG patients (mean age 52.4 ± 4.72 years, IOP <18 mmHg with beta-blocker monotherapy only) were enrolled. Of these, 47 eyes completed the study: 24 OAG eyes were treated with topical citicoline (OMK1®, Omikron Italia, 3 drops/day) (GC eyes) over a 4-month period (month 4) followed by a 2-month period of citicoline wash-out (month 6), and another 23 OAG eyes were only treated with beta-blocker monotherapy (GP eyes). In GC and GP eyes, pattern electroretinogram (PERG) and visual evoked potentials (VEP) were assessed at baseline and at months 4 and 6 in both groups.

Results: At baseline, similar (ANOVA, p > 0.01) PERG and VEP values in GC and GP eyes were observed. After treatment with topical citicoline, a significant (p < 0.01) increase of PERG P50-N95 and VEP N75-P100 amplitudes, and a significant (p < 0.01) shortening of VEP P100 implicit times were found. In GC eyes, the shortening of VEP P100 implicit times was correlated significantly (p < 0.01) with the increase of PERG P50-N95 amplitudes. After a 2-month period of topical Citicoline wash-out, PERG and VEP values were similar (p > 0.01) to baseline ones. GP eyes showed not significant changes of PERG and VEP values during the entire follow-up.

Conclusions: Topical treatment with citicoline in OAG eyes induces an enhancement of the retinal bioelectrical responses (increase of PERG amplitude) with a consequent improvement of the bioelectrical activity of the visual cortex (shortening and increase of VEP implicit time and amplitude, respectively).

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adrenergic beta-Antagonists / therapeutic use
  • Adult
  • Cytidine Diphosphate Choline / therapeutic use*
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Electroretinography
  • Evoked Potentials, Visual / physiology
  • Female
  • Glaucoma, Open-Angle / drug therapy*
  • Glaucoma, Open-Angle / physiopathology
  • Humans
  • Intraocular Pressure / drug effects
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Neural Conduction / physiology*
  • Nootropic Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Ophthalmic Solutions
  • Prospective Studies
  • Retina / physiology*
  • Tonometry, Ocular
  • Visual Acuity / physiology
  • Visual Pathways / physiology*


  • Adrenergic beta-Antagonists
  • Nootropic Agents
  • Ophthalmic Solutions
  • Cytidine Diphosphate Choline

Associated data

  • EudraCT/2012-001703-20