Targeting respiration and ATP synthesis has received strong interest as a new strategy for combatting drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Mycobacteria employ a respiratory chain terminating with two branches. One of the branches includes a cytochrome bc1 complex and an aa3-type cytochrome c oxidase while the other branch terminates with a cytochrome bd-type quinol oxidase. In this communication we show that genetic inactivation of cytochrome bd, but not of cytochrome bc1, enhances the susceptibility of Mycobacterium smegmatis to hydrogen peroxide and antibiotic-induced stress. The type-II NADH dehydrogenase effector clofazimine and the ATP synthase inhibitor bedaquiline were bacteriostatic against wild-type M. smegmatis, but strongly bactericidal against a cytochrome bd mutant. We also demonstrated that the quinone-analog aurachin D inhibited mycobacterial cytochrome bd at sub-micromolar concentrations. Our results identify cytochrome bd as a key survival factor in M. smegmatis during antibiotic stress. Targeting the cytochrome bd respiratory branch therefore appears to be a promising strategy that may enhance the bactericidal activity of existing tuberculosis drugs.