Vitamin D levels at birth and risk of type 1 diabetes in childhood: a case-control study

Acta Diabetol. 2015 Dec;52(6):1077-81. doi: 10.1007/s00592-015-0772-6. Epub 2015 May 28.


Aims: To assess whether vitamin D levels at birth were associated with risk of having type 1 diabetes up to 10 years of age and the potential modifier effect of ethnic group.

Methods: The Piedmont Diabetes Registry and the Newborn Screening Regional data were linked to identify cases (n = 67 incident children aged ≤10 years at diabetes onset, 2002-2012) and up to five controls (n = 236) matched for birthday and ethnic group. Cards with neonatal blood spot were used and 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) assessed with tandem mass spectroscopy.

Results: In conditional logistic regression, OR for unit increment of log vitamin D was 0.78 (95 % CI 0.56-1.10). Vitamin D was significantly lower in migrant than in Italian control newborn babies (p < 0.0001), and interaction between vitamin D and migrant status was statistically significant (p = 0.04). Compared to migrant newborns babies with vitamin D ≥ 2.14 ng/ml, migrants with lower levels had an OR of 14.02 (1.76-111.70), whereas no association was evident in Italians.

Conclusions: Our case-control study within the Piedmont Diabetes Registry showed no association between vitamin D levels at birth and risk of having type 1 diabetes up to 10 years of age, apart from the subgroup of migrant babies, which might have clinical implications if confirmed.

Keywords: Epidemiology; Incidence; Migrants.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Case-Control Studies
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / blood*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / epidemiology*
  • Ethnic Groups
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Italy / epidemiology
  • Male
  • Registries
  • Risk Assessment
  • Transients and Migrants
  • Vitamin D / blood*


  • Vitamin D