Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia with a de novo heterozygous mutation of calcium-sensing receptor

Endocrinol Diabetes Metab Case Rep. 2015;2015:150016. doi: 10.1530/EDM-15-0016. Epub 2015 May 1.

Abstract

A de novo heterozygous inactivating mutation of calcium-sensing receptor (CASR) gene typically causes neonatal hyperparathyroidism (NHPT) with moderate hypercalcemia and hyperparathyroid bone disease. We present a case of asymptomatic hypocalciuric hypercalcemia with a de novo heterozygous mutation in CASR, S591C, which is primarily reported to be responsible for NHPT. A 54-year-old female was referred for investigation of asymptomatic hypercalcemia that was initially found in the 1980s but without a history of bone disease during the perinatal period. She had moderate hypercalcemia (12.4 mg/dl) and relative hypocalciuria (fractional extraction of calcium 1.07%) but normal intact parathyroid hormone and serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Pedigree analysis revealed that she carried a de novo heterozygous mutation of S591C, which she transmitted to an affected child with moderate hypercalcemia but not to other children, who had normal serum calcium levels. A de novo heterozygous CASR mutation that is responsible for NHPT may also present in individuals with asymptomatic hypocalciuric hypercalcemia. Caution is required when predicting course and outcome in a pedigree with CASR mutation, as well as incidental hypercalcemia, because of its variable phenotypes.

Learning points: The phenotype and severity of CASR mutations are thought to be dependent on genotypes.We report an asymptomatic case of the de novo heterozygous S591C mutation in CASR, which has previously been reported as a responsible mutation of NHPT with bone diseases.Variable phenotypes of CASR raise a cautionary note about predicting outcome by genotyping in a pedigree with CASR mutation.