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. 2014 Jun;12(2):178-81.
doi: 10.1016/j.aju.2013.10.004. Epub 2013 Nov 20.

Galectin 3 for the Diagnosis of Bladder Cancer

Free PMC article

Galectin 3 for the Diagnosis of Bladder Cancer

Hoda El Gendy et al. Arab J Urol. .
Free PMC article


Objective: To evaluate serum levels of galectin-3 (G-3) in patients with bladder cancer and a control group, as a potential diagnostic and prognostic serum tumour marker.

Patients and methods: Between November 2012 and January 2013, 55 patients (median age 58 years) were enrolled into three groups, i.e., a control, those with transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) or those with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). The serum G-3 level was measured the night before cystoscopy. The levels of G-3 levels were correlated with tumour type, stage and grade, and in relation to levels in normal urothelium. The results were analysed statistically using the Mann-Whitney U-test, the Kruskal-Wallis test and the receiver operating characteristic curve, as appropriate.

Results: The median serum G-3 level was 100, 720 and 920 pg/mL in the control, TCC and SCC groups, respectively, with very significantly greater G-3 levels in both the TCC and SCC groups than in the control group. Patients with high-grade TCC had a statistically significantly greater serum G-3 level than those with low-grade tumours, as did those with muscle-invasive TCC than those with Ta tumours.

Conclusions: The level of G-3 can aid as a diagnostic marker in patients with either TCC or SCC of the bladder, but the prognostic significance of G-3 remains to be confirmed.

Keywords: (N)MI, (non-) muscle-invasive; Bladder cancer; G-3, galectin-3; Galectin 3; ROC, receiver operating characteristic; SCC, squamous cell carcinoma; Squamous cell carcinoma; Transitional cell carcinoma.


Figure 1
Figure 1
The serum level of G-3 in the control and bladder cancer groups.
Figure 2
Figure 2
The ROC curve of sensitivity and specificity.

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