Advances in Tourette syndrome: diagnoses and treatment

Pediatr Clin North Am. 2015 Jun;62(3):687-701. doi: 10.1016/j.pcl.2015.03.007. Epub 2015 Apr 16.

Abstract

Tourette syndrome (TS) is a childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by multiple motor tics and at least one vocal or phonic tic, and often one or more comorbid psychiatric disorders. Premonitory sensory urges before tic execution and desire for "just-right" perception are central features. The pathophysiology involves cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuits and possibly dopaminergic system. TS is considered a genetic disorder but the genetics is complex and likely involves rare mutations, common variants, and environmental and epigenetic factors. Treatment is multimodal and includes education and reassurance, behavioral interventions, pharmacologic, and rarely, surgical interventions.

Keywords: ADHD; OCD; Tics; Tourette.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Age of Onset
  • Child
  • Comorbidity
  • Humans
  • Medical History Taking
  • Neuropsychological Tests
  • Physical Examination
  • Risk Factors
  • Tourette Syndrome / diagnosis*
  • Tourette Syndrome / genetics
  • Tourette Syndrome / physiopathology
  • Tourette Syndrome / therapy*