The PSMD6 variant rs831571 has been identified as a susceptibility locus for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This study aimed to investigate the association of this variant with therapeutic effects of oral antidiabetic drugs in Chinese T2DM patients. 209 newly diagnosed T2DM patients were randomly assigned to treatment with repaglinide or rosiglitazone for 48 weeks, and the therapeutic effects were compared. In the rosiglitazone cohort, rs831571 showed significant associations with fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-h glucose and decrement of glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels after 24 weeks of treatment (P = 0.0368, 0.0468 and 0.0247, respectively). The C allele was significantly associated with a better attainment of FPG at 24 and 32 weeks (P = 0.0172 and 0.0257, respectively). Survival analyses showed CC homozygotes were more likely to attain a standard FPG level (P = 0.0654). In the repaglinide cohort, rs831571 was significantly associated with decreased HbA1c levels after 24 weeks of treatment, the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance and fasting insulin level after 48 weeks of treatment with repaglinide (P = 0.0096, 0235 and 0.0212, respectively). In conclusion, we observed that the PSMD6 variant rs831571 might be associated with the therapeutic effects of rosiglitazone and repaglinide in Chinese T2DM patients. However, these findings need to be confirmed in the future.