Effect of pesticide exposure on immunological, hematological and biochemical parameters in thai orchid farmers- a cross-sectional study

Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2015 May 27;12(6):5846-61. doi: 10.3390/ijerph120605846.


Various studies have found that many Thai orchid farmers used excessive amounts of pesticides without proper protective gear, but no toxicological study has been made. This cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate the immunological, hematological and biochemical statuses of these farmers. Sixty four orchid farmers and 60 controls were studied. Plasma cholinesterase activity, the percentage and absolute number of B lymphocytes (CD19+) were significantly lower in the farmers group (3966.32±1165.48 U/L, 11.61±4.09% and 312.26±164.83 cells/mm3, respectively) as compared to those of controls (5048.85±1139.40 U/L, 14.32±4.23%, 420.34±195.18 cells/mm3, respectively). There was a statistically significant higher level of serum IgE among the orchid farmers (0.031±0.011 mg/dL vs. 0.018±0.007 mg/dL) but not IgG, IgA and IgM, levels. Serum lysozyme level, lymphocyte proliferative responses to mitogens, hematological parameters and kidney function test, were not significantly different between the two groups. The liver function profiles showed significantly lower levels of albumin and serum protein in the farmer group. Thus frequent pesticide exposure resulted in subtle changes of some biological parameters. These changes, though may not be clinically significant, strongly indicated that caution in handing pesticides by these farmers is warranted.

Keywords: cross-sectional study; immunological and biochemical alterations; orchid farmers; pesticide exposure.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Agricultural Workers' Diseases / blood
  • Agricultural Workers' Diseases / chemically induced*
  • Agricultural Workers' Diseases / diagnosis
  • Agricultural Workers' Diseases / immunology
  • Biomarkers / blood
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Farmers
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Immunoglobulins / blood*
  • Lymphocytes / metabolism*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Occupational Exposure / adverse effects*
  • Orchidaceae*
  • Pesticides / toxicity*
  • Thailand


  • Biomarkers
  • Immunoglobulins
  • Pesticides