Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) is frequently overexpressed in cancer, which correlates with poor prognosis. Therefore, we investigated PLK1 as therapeutic target using rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) as a model. Here, we identify a novel synthetic lethal interaction of PLK1 inhibitors and microtubule-destabilizing drugs in preclinical RMS models and elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms of this synergism. PLK1 inhibitors (i.e., BI 2536 and BI 6727) synergistically induce apoptosis together with microtubule-destabilizing drugs (i.e., vincristine (VCR), vinblastine (VBL) and vinorelbine (VNR)) in several RMS cell lines (combination index <0.9) including a patient-derived primary RMS culture. Importantly, PLK1 inhibitors and VCR cooperate to significantly suppress RMS growth in two in vivo models, including a mouse xenograft model, without causing additive toxicity. In addition, no toxicity was observed in non-malignant fibroblast or myoblast cultures. Mechanistically, BI 2536/VCR co-treatment triggers mitotic arrest, which initiates mitochondrial apoptosis by inactivation of antiapoptotic BCL-2 family proteins, followed by BAX/BAK activation, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and activation of caspase-dependent or caspase-independent effector pathways. This conclusion is supported by data showing that BI 2536/VCR-induced apoptosis is significantly inhibited by preventing cells to enter mitosis, by overexpression of BCL-2 or a non-degradable MCL-1 mutant, by BAK knockdown, ROS scavengers, caspase inhibition or endonuclease G silencing. This identification of a novel synthetic lethality of PLK1 inhibitors and microtubule-destabilizing drugs has important implications for developing PLK1 inhibitor-based combination treatments.