Dendritic spine density of CA1 pyramidal neurons in the hippocampus and morphometric characteristics of the cholinergic neuronal population of the septal complex, were evaluated in young (four months), aged (27 months), and age-matched rats which had received long-term phosphatidylserine (BC-PS) administration (50 mg/kg/die, suspended in the drinking water). In aged rats, spine density decreased significantly by 12.11% in the basal dendrites and by 10.64% in the apical ones, as compared with young controls. In the cholinergic neuronal population of medial septum and diagonal band, aging induced a statistically significant reduction in cell number (-19.6%), in soma area (-18.5%), in cell maximal diameter (-9.2%), and in the area covered by all cholinergic profiles (-33%). By contrast, no significant reductions in the above-mentioned structural parameters were observed in aged BC-PS-treated rats when compared with young animals. The mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of BC-PS can possibly be ascribed to the pharmacological actions exerted by BC-PS on neuronal membranes, neurotransmission, and/or interaction with NGF.