Loss of Function Mutations in NNT Are Associated With Left Ventricular Noncompaction

Circ Cardiovasc Genet. 2015 Aug;8(4):544-52. doi: 10.1161/CIRCGENETICS.115.001026. Epub 2015 May 29.


Background: Left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC) is an autosomal-dominant, genetically heterogeneous cardiomyopathy with variable severity, which may co-occur with cardiac hypertrophy.

Methods and results: Here, we generated whole exome sequence data from multiple members from 5 families with LVNC. In 4 of 5 families, the candidate causative mutation segregates with disease in known LVNC genes MYH7 and TPM1. Subsequent sequencing of MYH7 in a larger LVNC cohort identified 7 novel likely disease causing variants. In the fifth family, we identified a frameshift mutation in NNT, a nuclear-encoded mitochondrial protein, not implicated previously in human cardiomyopathies. Resequencing of NNT in additional LVNC families identified a second likely pathogenic missense allele. Suppression of nnt in zebrafish caused early ventricular malformation and contractility defects, probably driven by altered cardiomyocyte proliferation. In vivo complementation studies showed that mutant human NNT failed to rescue nnt morpholino-induced heart dysfunction, indicating a probable haploinsufficiency mechanism.

Conclusions: Together, our data expand the genetic spectrum of LVNC and demonstrate how the intersection of whole exome sequence with in vivo functional studies can accelerate the identification of genes that drive human genetic disorders.

Keywords: genetics; genomics; human; mutation; nonisolated left ventricular noncompaction.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Animals, Genetically Modified
  • Embryo, Nonmammalian / embryology
  • Embryo, Nonmammalian / metabolism
  • Exome / genetics
  • Family Health
  • Female
  • Frameshift Mutation*
  • Genetic Complementation Test
  • Genetic Predisposition to Disease / genetics*
  • Humans
  • Isolated Noncompaction of the Ventricular Myocardium / genetics*
  • Luminescent Proteins / genetics
  • Luminescent Proteins / metabolism
  • Male
  • Microscopy, Confocal
  • Mitochondrial Proteins / genetics
  • NADP Transhydrogenase, AB-Specific / genetics*
  • Pedigree
  • Sequence Analysis, DNA
  • Zebrafish / embryology
  • Zebrafish / genetics


  • Luminescent Proteins
  • Mitochondrial Proteins
  • NADP Transhydrogenase, AB-Specific
  • NNT protein, human