The clinical features, treatment and outcome of 27 cases of fungal peritonitis were studied. Twenty-one cases occurred in patients receiving CAPD and six in patients on intermittent peritoneal dialysis. Twenty-five cases were due to Candida spp., one was due to Trichosporon spp. and in one, both Candida and Trichosporon and an unidentified acid-fast bacillus were isolated. Clinical features of fungal peritonitis and bacterial peritonitis were the same. A direct comparison with patients without fungal peritonitis failed to reveal an increased incidence of diabetes mellitus. However, a history of recent bacterial peritonitis and antibiotic treatment was frequently obtained. We found that the combination of oral ketoconazole and intraperitoneal miconazole is successful in treating fungal peritonitis complicating peritoneal dialysis but catheter removal and replacement is often necessary. Analysis of the relationship between clinical outcome and various treatment strategies in cases reported in the literature and in our own showed that an initial trial of antifungal drugs consisting of oral ketoconazole and i.p. 5-fluorocytosine or miconazole is warranted in most cases before contemplating catheter removal.