Various modalities of renal replacement therapy (RRT) are available for the management of acute kidney injury (AKI) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). While developed countries mainly use hemodialysis as a form of RRT, peritoneal dialysis (PD) has been increasingly utilized in developing countries. Chronic PD offers various benefits including lower cost, home-based therapy, single access, less requirement of highly trained personnel and major infrastructure, higher number of patients under a single nephrologist with probably improved quality of life and freedom of activities. PD has been found to be lifesaving in the management of AKI in patients in developing countries where facilities for other forms of RRT are not readily available. The International Society of Peritoneal Dialysis has published guidelines regarding the use of PD in AKI, which has helped in ensuring uniformity. PD has also been successfully used in certain special situations of AKI due to snake bite, malaria, febrile illness, following cardiac surgery and in poisoning. Hemodialysis is the most common form of RRT used in ESRD worldwide, but some countries have begun to adopt a 'PD first' policy to reduce healthcare costs of RRT and ensure that it reaches the underserved population.
Keywords: acute kidney injury; earthquake; intensive care unit pediatrics; peritoneal dialysis.