Objective: To critically review the potential role of monitoring technologies in the management of pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome, and specifically regarding monitoring of the general condition, respiratory system mechanics, severity scoring parameters, imaging, hemodynamic status, and specific weaning considerations.
Design: Consensus conference of experts in pediatric acute lung injury.
Methods: A panel of 27 experts met over the course of 2 years to develop a taxonomy to define pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome and to make recommendations regarding treatment and research priorities. The monitoring subgroup comprised two experts. When published data were lacking a modified Delphi approach, emphasizing strong professional agreement was used.
Results: The Pediatric Acute Lung Injury Consensus Conference experts developed and voted on a total of 151 recommendations addressing the topics related to pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome, 21 of which related to monitoring of a child with pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome. All 21 recommendations had agreement, with 19 (90%) reaching strong agreement.
Conclusions: The Consensus Conference developed pediatric-specific recommendations related to monitoring children with pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome. These include interpreting monitored values such as tidal volume using predicted body weight, monitoring tidal volume at the end of the endotracheal tube in small children, and continuous monitoring of exhaled carbon dioxide in intubated children with pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome, among others. These recommendations for monitoring in pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome are intended to promote optimization and consistency of care for children with pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome and identify areas of uncertainty requiring further investigation.