Hyperhomocysteinemia: Impact on Neurodegenerative Diseases

Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2015 Nov;117(5):287-96. doi: 10.1111/bcpt.12424. Epub 2015 Jun 19.


Neurodegenerative diseases are the diseases of the central nervous system with various aetiology and symptoms. Dementia, Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD) and autism are some examples of neurodegenerative diseases. Hyperhomocysteinemia (Hhcy) is considered to be an independent risk factor for numerous pathological conditions under neurodegenerative diseases. Along with genetic factors that are the prime cause of homocysteine (Hcy) imbalance, the nutritional and hormonal factors are also contributing to high Hcy levels in the body. Numerous clinical and epidemiological data confirm the direct correlation of Hcy levels in the body and generation of different types of central nervous system disorders, cardiovascular diseases, cancer and others. Till now, it is difficult to say whether homocysteine is the cause of the disease or whether it is one of the impacts of the diseases. However, Hhcy is a surrogate marker of vitamin B deficiency and is a neurotoxic agent. This Mini Review will give an overview of how far research has gone into understanding the homocysteine imbalance with prognostic, causative and preventive measures in treating neurodegenerative diseases.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Biomarkers / blood
  • Homocysteine / blood*
  • Humans
  • Hyperhomocysteinemia* / blood
  • Hyperhomocysteinemia* / diagnosis
  • Hyperhomocysteinemia* / epidemiology
  • Hyperhomocysteinemia* / therapy
  • Neurodegenerative Diseases* / blood
  • Neurodegenerative Diseases* / diagnosis
  • Neurodegenerative Diseases* / epidemiology
  • Neurodegenerative Diseases* / therapy
  • Nutritional Status
  • Prognosis
  • Risk Factors
  • Vitamin B Deficiency / blood
  • Vitamin B Deficiency / epidemiology


  • Biomarkers
  • Homocysteine