Aims: Nephronophthisis (NPHP) is an autosomal recessive cystic disease of the kidney with main characteristic features of polyuria/polydipsia, mild or absent proteinuria, interstitial fibrosis, and tubular cysts. NPHP is responsible for 5-10 % of inheritable end-stage renal disease (ESRD) cases. We investigated the clinical features and genetic cause of NPHP in a Persian family with three siblings affected by tubulointerstitial nephropathy reaching ESRD in adulthood.
Methods: Uromodulin (UMOD), known to be involved in adult medullary cystic kidney disease, and nephronophthisis 1 (NPHP1) were investigated in the genomic DNA of the probands using DNA sequencing, multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) analysis and molecular karyotyping.
Results: No mutation was detected in UMOD. Copy number variation analysis of the NPHP1 gene using the commercially available MLPA kit identified a recurrent large homozygous deletion encompassing all NPHP1 exons. The parents were heterozygous for this deletion. Whole genome array-CGH analysis confirmed a homozygous deletion on chromosome 2q13, NPHP1 site, and revealed that the size of the copy number loss was approximately 102 Kbp.
Conclusion: This is the first report of determination of an NPHP1 deletion size using routine diagnostic methods. The results of this study expand the knowledge about the genotype-phenotype correlations in NPHP1, and have implications for genetic counseling and family planning advice for other affected families. This is the first molecular analysis of NPHP1 in an Iranian kindred.
Keywords: Deletion; Iran; NPHP; NPHP type 1; Nephronophthisis; Size determination.