Understanding the Short- and Long-Term Respiratory Outcomes of Prematurity and Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia

Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2015 Jul 15;192(2):134-56. doi: 10.1164/rccm.201412-2142PP.


Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a chronic respiratory disease associated with premature birth that primarily affects infants born at less than 28 weeks' gestational age. BPD is the most common serious complication experienced by premature infants, with more than 8,000 newly diagnosed infants annually in the United States alone. In light of the increasing numbers of preterm survivors with BPD, improving the current state of knowledge of long-term respiratory morbidity for infants with BPD is a priority. We undertook a comprehensive review of the published literature to analyze and consolidate current knowledge of the effects of BPD that are recognized at specific stages of life, including infancy, childhood, and adulthood. In this review, we discuss both the short-term and long-term respiratory outcomes of individuals diagnosed as infants with the disease and highlight the gaps in knowledge needed to improve early and lifelong management of these patients.

Keywords: bronchopulmonary dysplasia; preterm birth; respiratory outcomes.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia / complications*
  • Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia / physiopathology
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Infant, Premature
  • Respiration Disorders / etiology*
  • Respiration Disorders / physiopathology
  • Risk Factors
  • Time
  • Young Adult