Primer ID Validates Template Sampling Depth and Greatly Reduces the Error Rate of Next-Generation Sequencing of HIV-1 Genomic RNA Populations

J Virol. 2015 Aug;89(16):8540-55. doi: 10.1128/JVI.00522-15. Epub 2015 Jun 3.


Validating the sampling depth and reducing sequencing errors are critical for studies of viral populations using next-generation sequencing (NGS). We previously described the use of Primer ID to tag each viral RNA template with a block of degenerate nucleotides in the cDNA primer. We now show that low-abundance Primer IDs (offspring Primer IDs) are generated due to PCR/sequencing errors. These artifactual Primer IDs can be removed using a cutoff model for the number of reads required to make a template consensus sequence. We have modeled the fraction of sequences lost due to Primer ID resampling. For a typical sequencing run, less than 10% of the raw reads are lost to offspring Primer ID filtering and resampling. The remaining raw reads are used to correct for PCR resampling and sequencing errors. We also demonstrate that Primer ID reveals bias intrinsic to PCR, especially at low template input or utilization. cDNA synthesis and PCR convert ca. 20% of RNA templates into recoverable sequences, and 30-fold sequence coverage recovers most of these template sequences. We have directly measured the residual error rate to be around 1 in 10,000 nucleotides. We use this error rate and the Poisson distribution to define the cutoff to identify preexisting drug resistance mutations at low abundance in an HIV-infected subject. Collectively, these studies show that >90% of the raw sequence reads can be used to validate template sampling depth and to dramatically reduce the error rate in assessing a genetically diverse viral population using NGS.

Importance: Although next-generation sequencing (NGS) has revolutionized sequencing strategies, it suffers from serious limitations in defining sequence heterogeneity in a genetically diverse population, such as HIV-1 due to PCR resampling and PCR/sequencing errors. The Primer ID approach reveals the true sampling depth and greatly reduces errors. Knowing the sampling depth allows the construction of a model of how to maximize the recovery of sequences from input templates and to reduce resampling of the Primer ID so that appropriate multiplexing can be included in the experimental design. With the defined sampling depth and measured error rate, we are able to assign cutoffs for the accurate detection of minority variants in viral populations. This approach allows the power of NGS to be realized without having to guess about sampling depth or to ignore the problem of PCR resampling, while also being able to correct most of the errors in the data set.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic / methods*
  • DNA Primers / genetics*
  • DNA, Complementary / genetics
  • Drug Resistance, Viral / genetics
  • HIV-1 / genetics*
  • High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing / methods*
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • RNA, Viral / genetics*
  • Research Design / standards


  • DNA Primers
  • DNA, Complementary
  • RNA, Viral