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Review
, 4 (6), 437-60
eCollection

Ghrelin

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Review

Ghrelin

T D Müller et al. Mol Metab.

Abstract

Background: The gastrointestinal peptide hormone ghrelin was discovered in 1999 as the endogenous ligand of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor. Increasing evidence supports more complicated and nuanced roles for the hormone, which go beyond the regulation of systemic energy metabolism.

Scope of review: In this review, we discuss the diverse biological functions of ghrelin, the regulation of its secretion, and address questions that still remain 15 years after its discovery.

Major conclusions: In recent years, ghrelin has been found to have a plethora of central and peripheral actions in distinct areas including learning and memory, gut motility and gastric acid secretion, sleep/wake rhythm, reward seeking behavior, taste sensation and glucose metabolism.

Keywords: Ghrelin; Growth hormone segretagogue receptor.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Schematic on ghrelin's physiological effects.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Schematic on the post-translational processing and acylation of ghrelin.
Figure 3
Figure 3
Milestones in ghrelin research. Bar graph represents the number of publications listed in the US National Library of Medicine National Institute of Health (PubMed) and that contain the word ‘ghrelin’ in either the title or the abstract until December 2014.
Figure 4
Figure 4
Schematic overview of the 7TM receptors judged to be either stimulating (in green to the right) or inhibiting (red or orange to the left and top) ghrelin secretion directly on the ghrelin cell. The main signaling pathway (Gαs or Gαi) employed by each of the receptors in the ghrelin cell is indicated inside the receptor in black. Figure taken from Engelstoft et al., Mol Metab. 2013 .

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