We investigated the transformation of 2,4-dichloroaniline (2,4-DiCA) and 3,4-DiCA to monochloroanilines (CA) in anaerobic pond sediment. Dechlorination of 3,4-DiCA to 3-CA started after a lag period of 3 weeks and was complete after an additional 5 weeks. Although 2,4-DiCA disappeared over 8 weeks, the appearance of a CA product could not be detected. In contrast, anaerobic bacteria in pond sediment acclimated to dehalogenate 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DiCP) or 3,4-DiCP rapidly dechlorinated 2,4-DiCA and 3,4-DiCA without any lag time. By comparison, anaerobic sediment bacteria acclimated to 3,4-DiCA rapidly degraded 3,4-DiCP without a lag. In all cases, the CA products were stable for the duration of the experiments. It is concluded that cross-acclimation occurred.