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, 39 (2), 94-104

Characteristics of Korean Ginseng Varieties of Gumpoong, Sunun, Sunpoong, Sunone, Cheongsun, and Sunhyang

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Characteristics of Korean Ginseng Varieties of Gumpoong, Sunun, Sunpoong, Sunone, Cheongsun, and Sunhyang

Jang-Ho Lee et al. J Ginseng Res.

Abstract

Background: Ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) is an important medicinal herbs in Asia. However, ginseng varieties are less developed.

Method: To developed ginseng varieties, a pure line selection method was applied in this study.

Results: Gumpoong was testing of 4-yr-old specimens in 2002, the proportions of the below-ground roots that were rusty colored for Gumpoong was 1.29 in Daejeon and 1.45 in Eumseong, whereas the proportions for its yellow berry variant were 2.60 and 2.45 in the two regions, respectively. Thus the Gumpoong was resistant to root rust. Sunpoong has a high yielding property. Its average root weight is 70.6 g for 6-yr-old roots. Its yield is 2.9 kg/1.62m(2) and the rate of heaven- and earth-grade product is 20.9%, which is very high compared to 9.4% for Yunpoong. Sunone is resistance to root rot and the survival rate of 4-yr-old roots was 44.4% in 1997, whereas that of the violet-stem variant landrace was 21.7%. Sunhyang has content of arginyl-fructosyl-glucose (AFG), which produces the unique scent of red ginseng, is 95.1 μmol/g and greater than the 30.8 μmol/g of Chunpoong in 6-yr-old plants. Sunun and Cheongsun are being nurtured to protect genetic resources.

Conclusion: Developed ginsneg varieties will be used as the basis for the protection of genetic resources and breeding.

Keywords: KGC; Korean; Panax ginseng; breeding; variety.

Figures

Fig. 1
Fig. 1
Red ginseng grades are divided into four grades. (A) Heaven-grade product should not have cracks and scratches. For rootlets, one or more should be well developed and the rootlet length should be three quarters or less of the main root. On the rootlet, there must be a diameter of ≤0.5 mm of whitening and pitting and an affected length of ≤10 mm. The color of the textures must be maroon, brown, or dark brown. (B) Earth-grade product has cracks and scratches on the body of the total surface area of less than a quarter. Earth-grade rootlet development is the same as that of heaven-grade. There must be a diameter of ≤2.0 mm of whitening and pitting and the affected portion length of a quarter. The earth-grade textures/colors are similar to heaven-grade. (C) The yang-grade standard is not limited to the body. Rootlets are unbalanced. Whitening of the body length is one third or less, and the pitting of the body length is one half or less. Like the other two grades, the Yang-grade color is shiny, but the color is not uniform. (D) The jab-grade has no standard and grade. The heaven-, earth-, yang-, and jab-grades are given based on the parameters provided in the Korea Ginseng Industry Act.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2
Characteristics of the aerial part of varieties of ginseng. (A) The distinctiveness of the aerial section of Panax ginseng Meyer var. Gumpoong. Anthocyanin coloration of the stem shows no purple. The leaf shape of the aerial section is broad elliptic. The color of berries is yellow. The color of autumn leaves is yellow. (B) The distinctiveness of the aerial section in Panax ginseng Meyer var. Sunun. The distribution of anthocyanin coloration of the stem shows purple along the whole stem. The leaf shape shows the strong development of leaflet surface blistering. The color of berries is red. The color of autumn leaves is red. (C) The distinctiveness of the aerial section in Panax ginseng Meyer var. Sunpoong. The distribution of anthocyanin coloration of the stem shows purple along the whole stem. The peduncle is very long. The color of berries is red. The color of autumn leaves is red. (D) The distinctiveness of the aerial section in Panax ginseng Meyer var. Sunone. The distribution of anthocyanin coloration of the stem shows purple along the whole stem. Four or six palmately compound leaves make circular form. The color of berries is red. The color of autumn leaves is red. (E) The distinctiveness of the aerial section in Panax ginseng Meyer var. Cheongsun. Cheongsun has no purple stem in the aerial section. The color of berries is red. The color of autumn leaves is red. (F) The distinctiveness of the aerial section in Panax ginseng Meyer var. Sunyhang. The distribution of anthocyanin coloration of the stem shows purple only on the lower part. The leaf shape of the aerial section is broad elliptic. The color of berries is red. The color of autumn leaves is red. (G) The distinctiveness of the aerial section in Panax ginseng Meyer var. Chunpoong. The distribution of anthocyanin coloration of the stem shows purple only on the lower section. The leaf shape of the aerial section is broad elliptic. The color of berries is orange. The color of autumn leaves is orange.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2
Characteristics of the aerial part of varieties of ginseng. (A) The distinctiveness of the aerial section of Panax ginseng Meyer var. Gumpoong. Anthocyanin coloration of the stem shows no purple. The leaf shape of the aerial section is broad elliptic. The color of berries is yellow. The color of autumn leaves is yellow. (B) The distinctiveness of the aerial section in Panax ginseng Meyer var. Sunun. The distribution of anthocyanin coloration of the stem shows purple along the whole stem. The leaf shape shows the strong development of leaflet surface blistering. The color of berries is red. The color of autumn leaves is red. (C) The distinctiveness of the aerial section in Panax ginseng Meyer var. Sunpoong. The distribution of anthocyanin coloration of the stem shows purple along the whole stem. The peduncle is very long. The color of berries is red. The color of autumn leaves is red. (D) The distinctiveness of the aerial section in Panax ginseng Meyer var. Sunone. The distribution of anthocyanin coloration of the stem shows purple along the whole stem. Four or six palmately compound leaves make circular form. The color of berries is red. The color of autumn leaves is red. (E) The distinctiveness of the aerial section in Panax ginseng Meyer var. Cheongsun. Cheongsun has no purple stem in the aerial section. The color of berries is red. The color of autumn leaves is red. (F) The distinctiveness of the aerial section in Panax ginseng Meyer var. Sunyhang. The distribution of anthocyanin coloration of the stem shows purple only on the lower part. The leaf shape of the aerial section is broad elliptic. The color of berries is red. The color of autumn leaves is red. (G) The distinctiveness of the aerial section in Panax ginseng Meyer var. Chunpoong. The distribution of anthocyanin coloration of the stem shows purple only on the lower section. The leaf shape of the aerial section is broad elliptic. The color of berries is orange. The color of autumn leaves is orange.

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