A Global Shape Index to Characterize Anterior Lamina Cribrosa Morphology and Its Determinants in Healthy Indian Eyes

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2015 Jun;56(6):3604-14. doi: 10.1167/iovs.15-16707.


Purpose: Lamina cribrosa (LC) morphology could be implicated in the progression of glaucoma. To date, no established, quantifiable parameter to assess LC shape in vivo exists. We aim to introduce a new global shape index for the anterior LC (LC-GSI) and to identify associations with ocular factors in a healthy Indian population.

Methods: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) scans of the optic nerve head (ONH) were performed on 162 healthy subjects. Optic nerve head structures were delineated and a geometric characterization of anterior LC morphology was obtained by measuring curvature along 180 LC cross sections and representing it as LC-GSI ranging from -1 to +1. Lamina cribrosa depth and curvature were also reported. Linear regression was used to identify factors associated with LC morphology.

Results: The typical healthy LC had a saddle rut-like appearance, with a central ridge visible in superior-inferior cross sections. A more prominent central ridge (larger LC-GSI) was associated with shorter axial length (P < 0.001), smaller Bruch's membrane opening (BMO) area (P = 0.020), smaller vertical cup-to-disc ratio (VCDR) (P = 0.007), and larger minimum rim width (BMO-MRW) (P = 0.001). A deeper LC was associated with male sex (P < 0.001), shorter axial length (P = 0.003), larger VCDR (P < 0.001), and smaller BMO-MRW (P = 0.002). Age and IOP were not significantly associated with LC morphology in healthy eyes.

Conclusions: The LC-GSI is a single index that quantifies overall LC shape in an intuitive way. Ocular determinants of LC-GSI in healthy eyes included risk factors for glaucoma (axial length, VCDR, and BMO-MRW), highlighting the potential role of LC morphological characterization in the diagnosis and monitoring of glaucoma.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Age Factors
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Anterior Eye Segment / anatomy & histology
  • Asians*
  • Axial Length, Eye / anatomy & histology
  • Bruch Membrane / anatomy & histology
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Female
  • Glaucoma / diagnosis
  • Humans
  • Imaging, Three-Dimensional
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Optic Disk / anatomy & histology*
  • Prospective Studies
  • Sex Factors
  • Tomography, Optical Coherence / methods