Wheat germ agglutinin anchored chitosan microspheres of reduced brominated derivative of noscapine ameliorated acute inflammation in experimental colitis

Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces. 2015 Aug 1;132:225-35. doi: 10.1016/j.colsurfb.2015.05.022. Epub 2015 May 21.


Reduced brominated derivative of noscapine (Red-Br-Nos, EM012), has potent anti-inflammatory property. However, physicochemical limitations of Red-Br-Nos like low aqueous solubility (0.43×10(-3) g/mL), high lipophilicity (logP∼2.94) and ionization at acidic pH greatly encumber the scale-up of oral drug delivery systems for the management of colitis. Therefore, in present investigation, chitosan microspheres bearing Red-Br-Nos (CTS-MS-Red-Br-Nos) were prepared by emulsion polymerization method and later coated with wheat germ agglutinin (WGA-CTS-MS-Red-Br-Nos) to boost the bioadhesive property. The mean particle size and zeta-potential of CTS-MS-Red-Br-Nos were measured to be 10.5±5.4 μm and 8.1±2.2 mV, significantly (P<0.05) lesser than, 30.2±3.2 μm and 19.2±2.3 mV of WGA-CTS-MS-Red-Br-Nos. Furthermore, various spectral techniques like SEM, FT-IR, DSC and PXRD substantiated that Red-Br-Nos was molecularly dispersed in tailored microspheres in amorphous state. Surface bioadhesive property of WGA-CTS-MS-Red-Br-Nos promoted the affinity toward colon mucin cells in simulated colonic fluid (SCF, pH∼7.2). In vitro release studies carried out on WGA-CTS-MS-Red-Br-Nos and CTS-MS-Red-Br-Nos indicated that SCF with colitis milieu (pH∼4.7) favored the controlled release of Red-Br-Nos, owing to solubilization at acidic pH. Consistently, in vivo investigation also demonstrated the utility of WGA-CTS-MS-Red-Br-Nos, which remarkably attenuated the DSS encouraged neutrophil infiltration, myeloperoxidase activity, and pro-inflammatory cytokine production in C57BL6J mice, as compared to CTS-MS-Red-Br-Nos and Red-Br-Nos suspension. The noteworthy anti-inflammatory activity of WGA-CTS-MS-Red-Br-Nos against acute colitis may be attributed to enhanced drug delivery, affinity and utmost drug exposure at inflamed mucosal layers of colon. In conclusion, WGA-CTS-MS-Red-Br-Nos warrants further in-depth in vitro and in vivo investigations to scale-up the technology for clinical translation.

Keywords: Chitosan; Colitis; Inflammation; Red-Br-Nos; Wheat germ agglutinin.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Bromine / chemistry*
  • Calorimetry, Differential Scanning
  • Chitosan / chemistry*
  • Colitis / drug therapy*
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Microscopy, Electron, Scanning
  • Microspheres*
  • Noscapine / chemistry
  • Noscapine / therapeutic use*
  • Powder Diffraction
  • Wheat Germ Agglutinins / chemistry*


  • Wheat Germ Agglutinins
  • Noscapine
  • Chitosan
  • Bromine