Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of oral N-acetylcysteine (NAC) co-treatment in preventing amphotericin B (AmB)-induced nephrotoxicity (AIN), including creatinine clearance and biomarkers of renal function (cystatin C [Cys C] and kidney injury molecule-1 [KIM-1]).
Methods: Either placebo or 600 mg oral NAC was given twice daily during the treatment course of AmB. Renal function test, serum as well as urinary level of Cys C and urinary KIM-1 were determined.
Results: Among the study population (n = 54), 23 (42.59%) patients developed AmB nephrotoxicity during their treatment course. NAC co-treatment was significantly associated with mitigating AmB nephrotoxicity (OR = 0.286, 95% CI: 0.082 - 0.993; p = 0.049). No statistically significant difference regarding accuracy of measured biomarkers including serum creatinine, serum and urine Cys C and urine KIM-1 at days 0 and 7 of treatment in predicting and detecting AmB nephrotoxicity was identified. The changes in mean serum and urine Cys C and urine KIM during AmB treatment within and between treatment groups were not statistically significant.
Conclusions: Co-treatment with 600 mg oral NAC twice a day during AmB treatment, after adjusting for multiple variables, was associated with prevention of AIN. However, significantly higher adverse reactions developed in the patients who were treated with NAC.
Keywords: N-acetylcysteine; amphotericin B; nephrotoxicity; prevention.