PIN proteins and the evolution of plant development

Trends Plant Sci. 2015 Aug;20(8):498-507. doi: 10.1016/j.tplants.2015.05.005. Epub 2015 Jun 4.


Many aspects of development in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana involve regulated distribution of the hormone auxin by the PIN-FORMED (PIN) family of auxin efflux carriers. The role of PIN-mediated auxin transport in other plants is not well understood, but studies in a wider range of species have begun to illuminate developmental mechanisms across land plants. In this review, I discuss recent progress in understanding the evolution of PIN-mediated auxin transport, and its role in development across the green plant lineage. I also discuss the idea that changes in auxin biology led to morphological novelty in plant development: currently available evidence suggests major innovations in auxin transport are rare and not associated with the evolution of new developmental mechanisms.

Keywords: PIN proteins; auxin; auxin transport; evolution of development; plant development.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Indoleacetic Acids / metabolism
  • Membrane Transport Proteins / genetics
  • Membrane Transport Proteins / metabolism
  • Plant Development / genetics
  • Plant Development / physiology*
  • Plant Proteins / genetics
  • Plant Proteins / metabolism*


  • Indoleacetic Acids
  • Membrane Transport Proteins
  • Plant Proteins