Stachys sieboldii (Labiatae, Chorogi) Protects against Learning and Memory Dysfunction Associated with Ischemic Brain Injury

J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2015;61(2):167-74. doi: 10.3177/jnsv.61.167.


Stachys sieboldii (Labiatae; Chinese artichoke, a tuber), "chorogi" in Japanese, has been extensively used in folk medicine, and has a number of pharmacological properties, including antioxidative activity. However, few studies have examined the neuroprotective effects of S. sieboldii tuber extract (chorogi extract), and it remains unknown whether the extract can alleviate learning and memory dysfunction associated with vascular dementia or Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of chorogi extract, and examined its protection against learning and memory dysfunction using Ginkgo biloba leaf extract (ginkgo extract) as a positive control. Mice were subjected to bilateral carotid artery occlusion (BCAO) for 30 min. Oral administration of chorogi extract or ginkgo extract significantly reduced post-ischemic glucose intolerance on day 1 and neuronal damage including memory impairment on day 3 after BCAO, compared with the vehicle-treated group. Neither herbal medicine affected locomotor activity. Furthermore, neither significantly alleviated scopolamine-induced learning and memory impairment. In primary neurons, neuronal survival rate was significantly reduced by hydrogen peroxide treatment. This hydrogen peroxide-induced neurotoxicity was significantly suppressed by chorogi extract and ginkgo extract. Taken together, our findings suggest that chorogi extract as well as ginkgo extract can protect against learning and memory dysfunction associated with ischemic brain injury through an antioxidative mechanism.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antioxidants / pharmacology
  • Antioxidants / therapeutic use*
  • Brain / cytology
  • Brain / drug effects*
  • Brain Injuries
  • Brain Ischemia / complications
  • Brain Ischemia / drug therapy*
  • Cognition Disorders / etiology
  • Cognition Disorders / prevention & control*
  • Dementia / complications*
  • Ginkgo biloba
  • Glucose Intolerance / prevention & control
  • Hydrogen Peroxide
  • Learning / drug effects
  • Learning Disabilities / etiology
  • Learning Disabilities / prevention & control
  • Male
  • Memory / drug effects*
  • Memory Disorders / etiology
  • Memory Disorders / prevention & control
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred Strains
  • Neuroprotective Agents / pharmacology
  • Neuroprotective Agents / therapeutic use
  • Oxidative Stress
  • Phytotherapy
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology
  • Plant Extracts / therapeutic use
  • Plant Tubers
  • Scopolamine
  • Stachys*


  • Antioxidants
  • Neuroprotective Agents
  • Plant Extracts
  • Hydrogen Peroxide
  • Scopolamine