Evidences suggest that tumor microenvironment may play an important role in cancer drug resistance. Sphingosine kinase 2 (SphK2) is proposed to be the key regulator of sphingolipid signaling. This study is aimed to investigate whether the combination of molecular targeting therapy using a specific inhibitor of SphK2 (ABC294640), with tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) can enhance the apoptosis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. Our results revealed that NSCLC cells' sensitivity to TRAIL is correlated with the level of SphK2. Compared with TRAIL alone, the combination therapy enhanced the apoptosis induced by TRAIL, and knockdown of SphK2 by siRNA presented a similar effect. Combination therapy with ABC294640 increased the activity of caspase-3/8 and up-regulated the expression of death receptors (DR). Additional investigations revealed that translocation of DR4/5 to the cell membrane surface was promoted by adding ABC294640. However, expression of anti-apoptosis proteins such as Bcl(-)2 and IAPs was not significantly modified by this SphK2 inhibitor. Overall, this work demonstrates that SphK2 may contribute to the apoptosis resistance in NSCLC, thus indicating a new therapeutic target for resistant NSCLC cells.
Keywords: ABC294640, 3-(4-chlorophenyl)-adamantane-1-carboxylic acid (pyridin-4-ylmethyl) amide; Bcl-2, B-cell lymphoma 2; Cer, ceramide; DISC, death-induced signaling complex; DR4, death receptor 4; DR5, death receptor 5; MTT, (3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide; NSCLC; NSCLC, non-small cell lung cancer; S1P, sphingosine-1-phosphate; SphK2, sphingosine kinase 2; TRAIL; TRAIL, tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand; death receptor; resistance; sphingosine kinase 2.