Background: Evidence supports high prevalence of periodontitis in patients with chronic kidney disease. Several renal factors have been proposed as possible modifiers of periodontitis pathogenesis in this population. In this cross sectional study, we investigated whether distinct microbial profiles in renal patients could explain high periodontitis prevalence.
Methods: We characterized the subgingival microbiome in 14 End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) and 13 control individuals with chronic periodontitis with similar demographic and clinical parameters. Medical, demographic and periodontal parameters were recorded. Subgingival biofilm samples were collected from the deepest pocket in two different quadrants and characterized via 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene.
Results: We found 874 species-level operational taxonomic units (OTU) across samples. Renal and control groups did not differ in the individual proportions of periodontitis-associated taxa. However, in principal coordinate plots of distance among samples based on OTU prevalence, some renal patients clustered apart from controls, with the microbial communities of these outlier subjects showing less diversity. Univariate correlation analysis showed a significant negative correlation between dialysis vintage and community diversity.
Conclusions: Within the study limitations, dialysis vintage was associated with a less diverse periodontal microbial community in ESRD suggesting the need for further research.