Neural stem cells (NSCs) offer a unique and powerful tool for basic research and regenerative medicine. However, the challenges that scientists face in the comprehension of the biology and physiological function of these cells are still many. Deciphering NSCs fundamental biological aspects represents indeed a crucial step to control NSCs fate and functional integration following transplantation, and is essential for a safe and appropriate use of NSCs in injury/disease conditions. In this review, we focus on the biological properties of NSCs and discuss how these cells may be exploited to provide effective therapies for neurological disorders. We also review and discuss ongoing NSC-based clinical trials for these diseases.
Keywords: Cell therapy; Neural stem cells; Neurodegenerative diseases; Neurodevelopmental disorders; Neuron; Pluripotent stem cells.