Objective: Identify biopsychosocial factors associated with depression for patients with Type 2 diabetes.
Method: A quasi-experimental clinical trial of 1293 patients was predominantly Hispanic (91%) female (62%), mean age 53 and average diabetes duration 10 years; 373 (29%) patients were depressed and assessed by Patient Health Questionnaire-9. Demographic, baseline clinical and psychosocial variables were compared between depressed and nondepressed patients.
Results: Bivariate analyses found depression significantly associated (p<0.05) with female gender, diabetes emotional burden and regimen distress, BMI ≥ 30, lack of an A1C test, diabetes duration, poor self-care, number of diabetes symptoms and complications, functional and physical characteristics (pain, self-rated health condition, Short-Form Health Survey SF-physical, disability score and comorbid illnesses), as well as higher number of ICD-9 diagnoses and emergency room use. A multivariable regression model with stepwise selection identified six key risk factors: greater disability, diabetes symptoms and regimen distress, female gender, less diabetes self-care and lack of A1C. In addition, after controlling for identified six factors, the number of psychosocial stressors significantly associated with increased risk of depression (adjusted odds ratio=1.37, 95% confidence intervals: 1.18-1.58, p<.0001).
Conclusion: Knowing biopsychosocial factors could help primary care physicians and endocrinologists identify a high-risk group of patients needing depression screening.
Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01781013.
Keywords: Depression; Risk factors; Safety net; Type 2 diabetes.
Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.