Our past studies of microRNA (miRNA) expression signatures of cancers including prostate cancer (PCa) revealed that microRNA-26a and microRNA-26b (miR-26a and miR-26b) were significantly downregulated in cancer tissues. In the present study, we found that restoration of miR-26a or miR-26b significantly inhibited PCa cell invasion. Gene expression data and in silico analysis showed that the gene encoding La-related protein 1 (LARP1) was a putative candidate of miR-26a and miR-26b regulation. Moreover, luciferase reporter assays revealed that LARP1 was a direct target of both miR-26a and miR-26b. Overexpression of LARP1 was observed in PCa clinical specimens and knockdown of LARP1 inhibited cancer cell migration. Therefore, LARP1 acted as an oncogene in PCa cells. Moreover, 'ribosome', 'RNA transport' and 'mTOR signaling pathway' were identified as LARP1-regulated pathways. Our present data suggested that loss of tumor-suppressive miR-26a and miR-26b enhanced cancer cell invasion in PCa through direct regulation of oncogenic LARP1. Elucidation of the molecular networks regulated by tumor-suppressive miRNAs will provide insights into the molecular mechanisms of PCa oncogenesis and metastasis.