Tuberous sclerosis (also known as tuberous sclerosis complex [TSC]) is a multisystem genetic disorder that affects almost every organ in the body. Mutations in the TSC1 or TSC2 genes lead to disruption of the TSC1-TSC2 intracellular protein complex, causing overactivation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) protein complex. The surveillance and management guidelines and clinical criteria for tuberous sclerosis were revised in 2012, and mTOR inhibitors are now recommended as treatment options for subependymal giant cell astrocytomas and renal angiomyolipomas-two common features of the disease. However, most morbidity and mortality caused by tuberous sclerosis is associated with neurological and neuropsychiatric manifestations. Treatment of epilepsy associated with tuberous sclerosis remains a major challenge, with more than 60% of patients having ongoing seizures. Tuberous-sclerosis-associated neuropsychiatric disorders (TAND) are multilevel and occur in most individuals with the disorder, but are rarely assessed and treated. Clinical trials of mTOR inhibitors to treat seizures and TAND are underway. Management of the neurological and neuropsychiatric manifestations of the disorder should be coordinated with treatment of other organ systems. In view of the age-related expression of manifestations from infancy to adulthood, continuity of clinical care and ongoing monitoring is paramount, and particular attention is needed to plan transition of patient care from childhood to adult services.
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