Sleep-wake disturbances are extremely common after a traumatic brain injury (TBI). The most common disturbances are insomnia (difficulties falling or staying asleep), increased sleep need, and excessive daytime sleepiness that can be due to the TBI or other sleep disorders associated with TBI, such as sleep-related breathing disorder or post-traumatic hypersomnia. Sleep-wake disturbances can have a major effect on functional outcomes and on the recovery process after TBI. These negative effects can exacerbate other common sequelae of TBI-such as fatigue, pain, cognitive impairments, and psychological disorders (eg, depression and anxiety). Sleep-wake disturbances associated with TBI warrant treatment. Although evidence specific to patients with TBI is still scarce, cognitive-behavioural therapy and medication could prove helpful to alleviate sleep-wake disturbances in patients with a TBI.
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