Object: Encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis (EDAS) is a form of revascularization that has shown promising early results in the treatment of adult patients with moyamoya disease (MMD) and more recently in patients with intracranial atherosclerotic steno-occlusive disease (ICASD). Herein the authors present the long-term results of a single-center experience with EDAS for adult MMD and ICASD.
Methods: Patients with ischemic symptoms despite intensive medical therapy were considered for EDAS. All patients undergoing EDAS were included. Clinical data, including recurrence of transient ischemic attack (TIA) and/or stroke, functional status, and death, were collected from a retrospective data set and a prospective cohort. Perren revascularization and American Society of Interventional and Therapeutic Neuroradiology/Society of Interventional Radiology (ASITN/SIR) collateral grades were recorded from angiograms.
Results: A total of 107 EDAS procedures were performed in 82 adults (36 with ICASD and 46 with MMD). During a median follow-up of 22 months, 2 (2.4%) patients had strokes; both patients were in the ICASD group. TIA-free survival and stroke-free survival analyses were performed using the product limit estimator (Kaplan-Meier) method. The probability of stroke-free survival at 2 years in the ICASD group was 94.3% (95% CI 80%-98.6%). No patient in the MMD group suffered a stroke. The probability of TIA-free survival at 2 years was 89.4% (95% CI 74.7%-96%) in ICASD and 99.7% (95% CI 87.5%-99.9%) in MMD. There were no hemorrhages or stroke-related deaths. Angiograms in 85.7% of ICASD and 92% of MMD patients demonstrated Perren Grade 3 and improvement in ASITN/SIR grade in all cases.
Conclusions: EDAS is well tolerated in adults with MMD and ICASD and improves collateral circulation to territories at risk. The rates of stroke after EDAS are lower than those reported with other treatments, including intensive medical therapy in patients with ICASD.
Keywords: ASITN/SIR = American Society of Interventional and Therapeutic Neuroradiology/Society of Interventional Radiology; EDAS; EDAS = encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis; ICA = internal carotid artery; ICASD = intracranial atherosclerotic steno-occlusive disease; IQR = interquartile range; MCA = middle cerebral artery; MMA = middle meningeal artery; MMD = moyamoya disease; SAMMPRIS = Stenting and Aggressive Medical Management for Preventing Recurrent stroke in Intracranial Stenosis; STA = superficial temporal artery; TIA = transient ischemic attack; atherosclerosis; encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis; intracranial arterial stenosis; moyamoya disease; stroke; vascular disorders.