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. 2016 Mar;20(1):237-42.
doi: 10.1007/s11325-015-1212-0. Epub 2015 Jun 13.

Dynamic Changes in Sleep-Related Breathing Abnormalities in Bilateral Paramedian Mesencephalon and Thalamus Stroke: A Follow-Up Case Study

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Case Reports

Dynamic Changes in Sleep-Related Breathing Abnormalities in Bilateral Paramedian Mesencephalon and Thalamus Stroke: A Follow-Up Case Study

Béla Faludi et al. Sleep Breath. .

Abstract

Background: Bilateral paramedian thalamic stroke is characterized by hypersomnia, vertical gaze palsy, amnestic alteration, and apathic state. Combined lesion of the paramedian thalamus and mesencephalon bilaterally is extremely rare. Little is known about the breathing disturbances of the particular region due to the lesion. The following describes the specific case of a woman, age 62, with bilateral paramedian thalamic and mesencephalic stroke. Initially, the patient's complaints exhibited altered vigilance and vertical gaze palsy. Notably, following the acute phase, fluctuating hypersomnia was detected. The MRI (brain) revealed an ischemic lesion in the medial part of the mesencephalon and paramedian thalamus, bilaterally.

Aims: The aim of the present study is to elucidate the involvement and characteristics of sleep-related breathing abnormalities in the clinical manifestation of the combined paramedian thalamic and mesencephalic stroke.

Methods: Polysomnographic recordings were accomplished seven times with 1-week interval between the consecutive recordings, toward investigating the early changes of sleep and sleep-related breathing abnormalities.

Results: Sleep structure examination featured a decrease in N3 and REM ratio and an increase in N1 and N2 ratio with minimal improvement during the recovery period. In contrast, significant changes were found in the breathing pattern: the initial central apnea dominance was followed by obstructive apneas with a gradual decrease of the total pathological respiratory events.

Conclusion: In addition to the structural abnormality of the sleep regulating network, sleep-disordered breathing is another possible cause of hypersomnia in patients afflicted with the present localization of the lesion.

Keywords: Central apnea; Hypersomnia; Mesencephalon; Obstructive apnea; Paramedian thalamus; Stroke.

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