Development and validation of the Simulation Learning Effectiveness Inventory

J Adv Nurs. 2015 Oct;71(10):2444-53. doi: 10.1111/jan.12707. Epub 2015 Jun 15.


Aim: To develop and psychometrically test the Simulation Learning Effectiveness Inventory.

Background: High-fidelity simulation helps students develop clinical skills and competencies. Yet, reliable instruments measuring learning outcomes are scant.

Design: A descriptive cross-sectional survey was used to validate psychometric properties of the instrument measuring students' perception of stimulation learning effectiveness.

Methods: A purposive sample of 505 nursing students who had taken simulation courses was recruited from a department of nursing of a university in central Taiwan from January 2010-June 2010. The study was conducted in two phases. In Phase I, question items were developed based on the literature review and the preliminary psychometric properties of the inventory were evaluated using exploratory factor analysis. Phase II was conducted to evaluate the reliability and validity of the finalized inventory using confirmatory factor analysis.

Results: The results of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed the instrument was composed of seven factors, named course arrangement, equipment resource, debriefing, clinical ability, problem-solving, confidence and collaboration. A further second-order analysis showed comparable fits between a three second-order factor (preparation, process and outcome) and the seven first-order factor models. Internal consistency was supported by adequate Cronbach's alphas and composite reliability. Convergent and discriminant validities were also supported by confirmatory factor analysis.

Conclusion: The study provides evidence that the Simulation Learning Effectiveness Inventory is reliable and valid for measuring student perception of learning effectiveness. The instrument is helpful in building the evidence-based knowledge of the effect of simulation teaching on students' learning outcomes.

Keywords: high-fidelity patient simulation; instrument development; learning outcome; nursing; nursing education; questionnaires; simulations.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Validation Study

MeSH terms

  • Clinical Competence / standards
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Education, Nursing / methods*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Nursing / standards
  • Perception
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Simulation Training*
  • Students, Nursing / psychology
  • Taiwan
  • Teaching / methods
  • Young Adult