Fifteen patients with treatment-refractory colorectal cancer were enrolled on a phase 1b study of Pexa-Vec (pexastimogene devacirepvec; JX-594), an oncolytic and immunotherapeutic vaccinia designed to selectively replicate in cancer cells. Pexa-Vec was administered intravenously every 14 days, at dose levels of 1 × 10(6), 1 × 10(7), or 3 × 10(7) plaque-forming units (pfu)/kg. The primary endpoint was to determine the maximum tolerated dose. Secondary endpoints were pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics as well as antitumor activity. Patients were heavily pretreated (mean 4.5 lines of therapy). All patients received at least two Pexa-Vec doses (median = 4; range = 2-4). No dose-limiting toxicities were reported, and the maximum tolerated dose was not reached. The most common adverse events were grade 1/2 flu-like symptoms, generally lasting <24 hours. During the first and last cycles, genome pharmacokinetics were unchanged. Infectious pfu could be detected in plasma up to 2 hours after cycle 1 and up to 30 minutes after cycle 4 (when antivaccinia antibody titers are known to have peaked). Ten patients (67%) had radiographically stable disease. Given the acceptable safety profile of multiple intravenous Pexa-Vec infusions in patients with treatment-refractory colorectal cancer, further trials evaluating efficacy of intravenous Pexa-Vec, as monotherapy or in combination with chemotherapeutic agents, is warranted in this patient population.